27 The Word List Manager
This button on the Main Window Toolbar opens up the Word List Manager (WLM). The WLM is a tool that permits you to generate and manipulate word lists from a variety of sources. The WLM can also be opened up via the Search Window Utility Button or by selecting Tools | Word List Manager from the Main Menu.
The Word List Manager (WLM) provides unique and powerful capabilities for textual analysis. It is a replacement for the Word Frequency List Generator in previous versions of BibleWorks, but adds a great many features. It can function by itself or import Word Lists from other parts of the program like the Graphical Search Engine or the Search Window.
When you open the WLM you will see two empty List Boxes. The WLM lets you work with two different Word Lists at the same time. The two Word Lists are independent of each other, but they can be compared and combined in a variety of ways. You can create, select, compare, sort, copy, export, and manipulate each Word List separately. You can select which of the two Word Lists you want to work with by choosing a selection from the "Select Active List" group box. The list on the left is called the "Main Word List". The list on the right is the "Secondary Word List".
Some of the things that you can do with the WLM are
§ You can generate a word frequency list of all the words that occur in a Bible Version or in any range of verses in a Bible Version.
§ You can count and list all words found as a result of Search Window or GSE searches.
§ You can save a group of words from one query and plug them into another query.
§ You can compare the differences between two word lists.
§ You can perform Boolean operations of word lists from different verse ranges (e.g. find all words that occur in John that do not occur anywhere else in the New Testament).
§ You can generate a "Lexicon" based on the words in the frequency/hits list.
Any word list generated by the WLM can be saved to a file and reused later. You can also compare two Word Lists and find all words that are in both lists, all words that are not in the other Word List, etc. After comparing two Word Lists, you can create a new Word List from the results.
The WLM can be used to compile a list of what words appear in a book of the Bible and how frequently they occur. You can select the entire Bible version, a group of books, a group of chapters, or even a verse range, and the WLM will compile the word frequency list. In morphology versions, such as the BNM and WTM, you can filter the frequency list to show only words of a certain part of speech.
Word frequency lists can be very important in the analysis of Biblical texts. Among other things they can give you important clues about what the key themes are in a range of verses. They are helpful in doing comparative analyses of the works of different authors. A favorite use of the lists for beginners and teachers is simply to provide vocabulary drill lists.
When the WLM is first opened, both word lists will be empty. To fill a word list, first choose the word list that you want to work with from the "Set Active List" group box. Then select File | Load Word List from the menu at the top of the WLM. You can also click on the "Load or Generate Word List" button. The Create Word List Window will then open. This window will guide you through the process of generating the list.
This example will show you how to find all words in the NKJ and the frequency with which they appear. In the WLM, click on the Load or generate Word List button. When the Create Word List window opens, select NKJ in the Version window (you may need to uncheck Show only active display versions). This tells the WLM that you want to tabulate all the words from the NKJ Bible version. Select Load words from a Bible version.
After clicking the Create list button, the results are compiled and shown in the WLM window, sorted by frequency, so we can easily see the most common words in the NKJ.
To sort the words alphabetically, select Sort | Sort alphabetically from the WLM menu. The WLM now shows the words in alphabetical order.
This example will show you how to generate a list of all the verbs in the WTM version. In the WLM, click on the Load or generate Word List button. When the Create Word List window opens, select WTM in the Version window (you may need to uncheck Show only active display versions). This tells the WLM that you want to tabulate all the words from the WTM version. Select Load words from a Bible version. Now, enter *@v* in the Filter words using edit control. This tells the WLM to only collect the words matching the wildcard above (any word with any verb). Uncheck "Keep morph codes". If checked, this option will keep the full morphology code for each word. Since we simply want a list of verb lemmas, we leave this unchecked.
After clicking the Create list button, the results are compiled and shown in the WLM window, sorted by frequency. Now you know what verbs are used most frequently in the Hebrew Old Testament.
This example will show you how to generate a list of the most commonly used words in the book of James in the NKJ. First of all, in the WLM, click on the Load or generate Word List button. When the Create Word List window opens, select NKJ in the Version window (you may need to uncheck Show only active display versions). This tells the WLM that you want to tabulate all the words from the NKJ version. Select Load words from a Bible version. Now, enter jam in the Verse range edit control. This tells the WLM to only collect the words from the entire book of James. To limit the Word List to James 3:13 through James 5:20, you could enter "Jam 3:13 - Jam 5:20" in the "Verse range" edit control. Note that Use Search Window limits should be unchecked unless you want to override the limits that you type in the WLM limits textbox.
After clicking the Create list button, the results are compiled and shown in the WLM window, sorted by frequency.
The WLM allows you to collect words matched by GSE and Command Line searches. For example, if you were searching in the WTM and wanted a list of all words that were repeated twice in a row, you could perform the Command Line query
' #1 #1
To see the resulting list of matching words, you would open up the WLM and import the results of that query. The WLM will read in all the hits, remove duplicates, count the frequencies and sort the list for you. To do this run the search and open the WLM, and click Load or generate Word List. Then select "Load highlighted words from last query". After clicking the Create list button, the results are compiled and shown in the WLM window. At this point you can select and delete words from the Word List. Simply click on the word to delete using the left mouse button. Then, select Edit | Delete selected.
At a more advanced level, you can use the WLM to create word lists that are subsequently fed back into a new GSE query. For example, let's say you were working with the BNM and you wanted to examine all verbs used in conjunction with Lord (kurioj). You could start by doing a search in the Command Line such as
After running this query, if you open the WLM and import the
results, you will have a list of all verbs that immediately follow kurioj, as well as the
frequency in which the verbs occurred in that way. Note that these verbs are
not a list of all verbs in the BNM -- only those that match query hits. The WLM
can now export this list of verbs to a file, and the file can then be used in
subsequent GSE queries as a sort of "mega-wild-card". For instance,
you might now want to find all verses where these verbs occur, but where the
word kurioj does not
appear. Without the WLM, these kinds of queries would be very tedious to
construct, if not impossible. This example can be done in a few minutes.
As another example, suppose you want to generate a list of all prepositions that immediately follow any form of the word pisteuw. You can set up the query by entering this on the Command Line:
Then export this query to the GSE (select Search | Graphical Search Engine) by opening the GSE.
Since we're only interested in the prepositions, we turn off the highlighting in the pisteuw@* word box by selecting Suppress highlighting in the word box window.
When we run the GSE query the results will be exported to Search Window where you can proceed as before to open the Word List Manager and import the hits from the search.
Words must be selected before you can do anything with them. After the list is generated you can select words in the Word List by clicking on them. Or you can select multiple words by using the shift and control keys while clicking. Clicking with the shift key pressed will select an entire range of words. Clicking a word with the control key pressed will add a word to an existing selection. You can also double-click on a word to look it up in the Search Window.
The Main Menu in the WLM Window provides a wide range of options for manipulating the Word Lists that you generate. You can save the Word Lists to files in several formats. You can copy the Word Lists to the clipboard. You can compare them and merge the two WLM Word Lists. You can also sort the lists alphabetically or by frequency.
When comparing two Word Lists, the WLM lets you find all unique words and all common words between the two lists. To find all words in common, select Select | Select words common to both lists from the WLM menu. The words that are present in both lists will now be highlighted in both lists.
To find all words that are unique to each Word List, you would select Select | Select all words not in other list. Note that at this point you can trim down the list by deleting the selected words. You can also invert the selection (select all words that are unselected and unselect the words that are selected), and then delete the selected words.
The Menu across the top of WLM contains options to load, save and manipulate Word Lists. The following is a summary of the options available in each menu.
§ Load Word List - Opens the Create Word List window. This window lets you fill the active Word List with words from the last query, with words from a file, or with words from a Bible version or range of verses. See WLM - Create Word List Window .
§ Save as an IEL file - This saves the Word List as an inclusion/exclusion file (*.iel). These files are used by the GSE in the word box. This allows you to takes Word Lists (which may be the results of a previous query) and plug the results back into a new GSE query.
§ Export as a RTF file - This saves the Word List as a Rich-Text Format (RTF) file. Most common word processors can import RTF files. RTF files preserve font information, so Greek and Hebrew characters are preserved.
§ Export as a text file - This saves the Word List as a plain text file. Text files do not preserve font information.
§ Make Lexicon from selected words (to editor) - If you choose this option the words listed in the current word list will be used to construct a new "Lexicon". You will be presented with a Window that permits you to select the Lexicons that you want to use for the definitions. The "Lexicon" will be placed in a new Editor Window.
§ Copy selected words to clipboard - This copies the selected words in the Word List to the system clipboard. The selected words can then be pasted into other programs.
§ Copy selected words to other Word List - This copies the selected words in the active Word List to the other Word List. The words are added to the other Word List, without deleting them from either Word List.
§ Delete selected - This deletes the selected words from the active Word List.
§ Clear entire list - This deletes all words from the active Word List.
§ Change morphology on selected words - This allows you to add or change the morphology on the selected words. A window will open with options to allow you to specify the morphology to be added to the end of the selected words in the Word List. For instance, if you wanted to change the morphology on a list of words to "@n*", you would select the words to change, select Edit | Change morphology on selected words, and then enter "@n*" in the Replace Morphology window. When you click Ok, the morphology will be changed to "@n*" on all selected words.
§ Invert inclusion/exclusion on selected words - For all selected words, this changes words marked as inclusion words into exclusion words, and changes words marked as exclusion words into inclusion words. Inclusion and exclusion words are used in the GSE word box .
§ Mark selected words as inclusion words - For all selected words, this marks the words as inclusion words. Inclusion words are use in the GSE word box.
§ Mark selected words as exclusion words - For all selected words, this marks the words as exclusion words. Inclusion words are use in the GSE word box.
§ Select all - Selects all words in the Word List.
§ Unselect all - Unselects all words in the Word List.
§ Invert selection - Selects all words which are unselected in the Word List, and unselects all words which are selected in the Word List.
§ Select words common to both lists - Selects all words in the Word List appearing in the other Word List. A word appearing only in this Word List is not selected.
§ Select words not common to both Word Lists - Selects all words in the Word List that do not appear in the other Word List. If a word appears only in this Word List, and not in the other Word List, it is selected. If a word appears in both Word Lists, it is not selected.
§ Select all inclusion words - This selects all words in the active Word List that are marked as inclusion words.
§ Select all exclusion words - This selects all words in the active Word List that are marked as exclusion words.
§ Sort alphabetically - This re-sorts the Word List alphabetically.
§ Sort by frequency - This re-sorts the Word List, with the most common words appearing first.
This window will open up when you click on the "Load or Generate Word List" button in the Word List Manager. This is where you select the Word List source and any options that you want to be in effect when it is generated.
The process of generating a Word List involves the following steps:
When the "Create Word List" window opens you first choose the Bible version from which the words will be collected (if the source option that you check in the "Source" group box requires one). The choice will be set initially, as a convenience, to the search version that was active when you opened the WLM.
The next thing you should do is select a source for the Word List that you want to generate. The options that you have are as follows:
Load highlighted words from last query - If you choose this
option the highlighted words from the last query run (on the Command Line or
GSE) will be collected and counted. In most but not all cases the version that
you select in the first step above should be the version that was used in the
GSE or Command Line to do the search. There is one important exception though. If the
search version has a "brother" or "companion" text you can
choose it instead. For example you can do a lemma search in the GNM and in the
Word List Manager you can collect the corresponding text forms in the GNT! Most
of the Greek and Hebrew texts in BibleWorks come in pairs - a text version and
a morphology version. You can search on one and use the WLM to collect the
corresponding hits in the other.
Keep in mind that you can construct searches in the GSE with multiple words and you can control the highlighting for each word separately. You can also use Inclusion/Exclusion lists to great advantage. This provides a convenient and powerful mechanism for generating word lists. For example, if you want to compile a list of all the words in a version, excluding certain words, you could build a one-word GSE search using an Inclusion/Exclusion list with a wildcard and a list of words to be excluded. If you want just a simple word list including all words, it is probably simpler to just use the "Load words from a Bible version" option below. But the use of the GSE to generate the list gives you very precise control when you need it.
§ Load words from an inclusion/exclusion file - If you choose this option the WLM will load the words from an IEL file. IEL files are Word List files generated and saved by BibleWorks. The name stands for "Inclusion-Exclusion Lists" and comes from the way the word lists are used in the GSE. IEL files can be created by the WLM and in the GSE. In the GSE, the IEL files are accessed in the Word Box window. The GSE uses IEL files to save lists of word to include or exclude from a query.
§ Load words from Louw-Nida domains - If you choose this option the WLM will open a window from which you can select lists of words from Louw-Nida domains. These are basically synonym lists from the Greek New Testament.
§ Load words from a Bible version - This is probably the most frequently used option. When this option is chosen, the WLM will construct a frequency list of the words that occur in a given Bible version, or a range of verses in the version. See the "Load highlighted words from last query" option above for an alternative way of generating Bible Version Word Lists.
After choosing the source for the word list you should set the range of verses that you want to be used in the compilation of the list. You can choose to use the limits set externally in the Search Window Search Limits Window , or you can enter your own. Initially the range will be set to cover the entire version that you have selected. You can click on "reset" to reset the range to the entire Bible. The verse range limits are only used for generating Version Word Lists and lists from search results. They are ignored for the other source option.
When you are generating word lists from a Bible version you can set complex conditions on the way in which verses are included or excluded. For example you can find all the words in one range of verses that do not occur in another range. See the Complex Verse Ranges section below for details on how to do this.
This section of the "Create Word List" Window permits you to set several final options before generating the Word List. The list of options includes:
§ Filter words using: In the text box here you can enter any valid search word for the version selected in Version List Box. It can contain wildcards as well. Only words matching this filter will be kept in the list. You could use this for example to collect only nouns from a morphology word search. In that case the filter would look something like *@n* (for the GNM, for example). If no entry is made here all words will be kept.
§ You can enter multiple words in the filter box separated by spaces and any word matching any of the entries will be kept. If you want to exclude a word precede it by a NOT code - the "exclamation point" ( ! ). Note that for Greek and Hebrew databases you will need to press the INS key before entering this NOT code.
§ Keep morph codes - If this option is NOT checked and you are working with a morphology version, the morphology codes will be stripped off before the words are entered into the list.
§ Keep Greek accents and Hebrew vowels - If this option is checked and the version being used is Greek or Hebrew, the Greek accents or Hebrew vowel points will be kept. Otherwise they will be stripped off and only unaccented and unpointed words will occur in the list.
§ Keep Hebrew accents - If this option is not selected, all accents (NOT vowel points) will be stripped off of Hebrew words before they are entered into the list.
Once you have set any relevant options in this section just click on the "Create List" button and the list will be created. The "Create Word List" window will close and the results will be displayed in the Word List Window.
When filling in the Verse Range Limits option in the Word List Manager you can combine verse ranges in various ways to generate specialized word lists. There are three "operators" that you can use to do this - the familiar AND, OR and NOT operators, which are indicated respectively by the ampersand (&), the forward slash (/) and the exclamation point (!). The following example should clarify the procedure:
gen - exo will search the books of Genesis and Exodus.
gen all by itself will search the book of Genesis.
gen 1:1-10 will search the first ten verses of Genesis.
mat / mar ! luk will find all words in Matthew OR Mark but NOT in Luke.
mat / mar & luk will find all words in Matthew OR Mark AND also in Luke.
The / operator has precedence. This means that all ORs will be evaluated first. Also, for the time being at least, you cannot use both the & and ! operators at the same time. You can however have as many & operators as you need.
mar / luk will generate a list of all the words that occur in either Mark or Luke.
gen ! exo - rev will generate a list of all the words that occur in Genesis but nowhere else in the Bible.
gen 1:1 - gen 3:15 ! gen - rev will generate a list of all the words unique to Genesis 1:1-3:15.
mar & luk will generate a list of all the words that occur in both Mark and Luke.
When you specify a range like range1!range2, both ranges are searched first together as a base and then a second search is done to eliminate the second range.
For convenience sake the OR operator can be either a forward slash (/) or a semicolon (;). So you can write either mat 1:1-10;mar 4:1-3 or mat 1:1-10/mar 4:1-3.
Using VLS Verse Lists
The WLM will accept file names instead of verse ranges. Anywhere you can enter a verse range, you can use a file name. This features allows you to easily generate a word frequency list from the verse list resulting from any search.
The file should be a .vls file, which is the format produced now by both the GSE and Verse List Manager. For instance, if you have a .vls file named mytest.vls, you can use mytest in the Verse range specification (e.g. mytest / luk). You do not have to add the extension .vls. If it is left off BW will add it.
Be careful about having verse list files named after books, as the file would then override book searches. For example, if you have a file called mat.vls, then mat / mar would generate a list of words in Mark or in the verse list mat.vls.
This window lets you replace the morphology string or add a morphology string to words in the WLM. For all words that are selected in the active WLM Word List, the morphology string will be replaced by the string you enter in this window.
You can use this window to remove morphology strings as well as add morphology strings. For example, if you want to remove the morphologies from all selected words, you would enter @* in this window. Note that you can use wildcards in this window. Thus, if you wanted to tag all selected words in the active Word List as nouns, you would enter @n* in this window.
This window enables you to construct inclusion/exclusion lists (word lists) based on semantic domains (a domain is a range of meanings). The list of domains comes from the Louw-Nida Greek Lexicon. In effect this allows you to search on meanings rather than words. Using this window in the Word List Manager (WLM) and GSE , you can load entire semantic domains. In the GSE this allows you to define word objects that represent a range of meanings, just as wildcards represent character patterns. The domain lists can also be loaded into the Word List Manager, where they can be pruned, extended, and combined with other Word Lists.
In the GSE you can open this from the Word Box Window if you have a Greek Morphological database (GNM, BNM, BGM, etc.) as your version for that node. In the Word Box Window , select Search Method | Inclusion/exclusion list, and then click on More | Add Louw-Nida domain. This allows you to add Louw-Nida Domain Word Lists to GSE inclusion lists. Don't miss the power that this gives you. In effect it allows you to search on domains the same way you search on words.
In the WLM, you can open this window from the Create Word List Window . Select Load words from Louw-Nida domains and click on the Create Word List Button to open the Semantic Domain construction window.
The Semantic Domain Selection Window has two list boxes. The one on the left is a display of the Louw-Nida domains and sub-domains. When you click on one of the domains, the corresponding lemmas will appear in the right-hand list box. You can select one or more (or all) of these words by clicking on them. As you change the domain selection you can select different words in each domain and a record will be kept of what you have selected.
If you want to find what domains include a particular Greek word just type it in the Show domains with this string text area and click on Apply filter. You can even use wildcards. This will generate a more abbreviated domain list. If the Accents checkbox is activated, accents will be significant in the domain string that you supply, otherwise not.
There are buttons on the right to select all the displayed lemmas or to clear the words in the currently selected domain.
When you are ready to copy the list to the GSE inclusion list, just click on OK. Duplicates will be removed before copying and Louw-Nida entries that are phrases rather than words, will not be copied - the inclusion list cannot currently handle phrases. Phrases will be grayed out in the Words to export List Box to remind you that they cannot be copied. We kept them there just to remind you of the fact that you may be losing some of the domain content (though not a significant amount).
§ Domains - This list displays the Louw-Nida domain list. When you click on a domain, the words and phrases in the domain are shown in the adjacent window.
§ Words to export - This list shows all words in the domain. Words that have been selected for inclusion will be highlighted. You can select (highlight) a word just by clicking on it with the left mouse button.
§ Show domains with this string - You can enter a word or wildcard specification (such as "logoj" or "anqr*") here to filter the Domains window to only show domains containing a word matching your specification. You can use wild cards if you wish. After entering this specification, press Enter or click the Apply filter button. This is an easy way to find what domain a word is in. Many Greek words occur in more than one domain.
§ Accents - This checkbox determines whether accents are significant when processing your Search domains with this string specification. If this box is not checked, accents are not considered significant when searching the domain list.
§ Reset domains - This button resets the Domains window to the full list of domains.
§ Apply filter - Filters the Domains window based on the specification in Show domains with this string.
§ Select list - Selects all words in the current word list for exporting. Note that the selection state(s) of words are preserved when you select another domain and change the Word List.
§ Clear all - Clears the entire export selection (for all domains, not just the current one).
§ Export selected words as exclusions - When OK is pressed, all selected words in all domains will be exported as exclusions rather than inclusions.
§ OK - When you click on OK all the words selected in the word list on the right will be copied to the GSE Word Box or WLM Word List inclusion list. Note that all the words that you selected in any of the domain word lists will be copied.